Collaborative networks are considered a critical factor in developing the human species and any living being. Life would not be possible without the dynamic interaction between plants, animals, micro-organisms, non-living beings, and their environment. Nor would human life be possible without considering its physical, social, cultural, and technological environments as a unitary network living within a historical context.
The concept of Open Science brings a new way to carry out the scientific research and emphasise the collaborative, transparent and accessible conditions of this task. It demands that researchers make available their results, but also they must assume the commitment of applying practices to promote the use of shared resources. Several organizations, like EU and UNESCO, are driving initiatives in order to achieve this aim, and universities, as one of the main sources of new knowledge, are assigned to be an essential element in this new scene.
In the last two decades the teaching profession has increasingly lost autonomy and become subject to political change that has introduced a market orientation to both educational organisation and culture. The stages that the teaching profession has gone through can be characterised as: pre-professional; autonomy; collegial and the post-professional age.